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All about internal diseases. and breathing apparatus

All about internal diseases. and breathing apparatus

  •         Chapter One 

and physiological overview of the 

respiratory system in the correct 


1_Anatomical overview The respiratory system consists of a group of organs known as the respiratory tree, which is made up of the nose, larynx, trachea, and bronchi, and of the lungs and the pleura that surrounds them, and includes the thoracic septum consisting of ribs and the muscles and soft tissues between them The dorsal vertebrae and the sternum, most of the masculine organs, except for the nose, the larynx, and part of the trachea, the nose and its related parts of the pharynx, from which the respiratory tree begins. The air enters from the nostrils and travels in a crooked channel that heats and moisturizes it, until when it reaches the lungs it loses its coolness and dryness, and the hairs in the two nostrils stop a large amount of dust entering with inspiration, just as small dust, germs and parasites that may be carried in the air are stopped by the vibrating cilia of the cells of the Nasal mucosa and pharyngeal sputum parts. The function of the larynx in the respiratory function is very small and is limited to the passage of air in inhalation and exhalation. However, diseases of this organ have a strong effect on breathing, making the occasional shortness of breath one of the main reasons leading to suffocation. The trachea is connected to the top of the larynx and inserted into the chest behind the small (fourechette sternale). Then it splits into two halves, forming the two large bronches, each of which goes to the navel of the corresponding lung, and several branches branch out from them, intertwining and ending with precision until they end with the formation of bronchioles, which also lead to small vesicles known as infundibula, and contain in their walls small dwellings called transcripts ( alvéoles) and the lobules (lobules pulmonaires) are formed by the engulfing of the cones and the lobes of the lungs (lobespul) from the assembling of the lobes. The right lung has three lobes and the left has two lobes. From the histological interface, the trachea and large bronchi have cartilaginous rings connected by a fibromuscular membrane. The mucous membrane that covers it inside, its cells have vibrating cilia that stop the dust and germs that are carried by the inhaled air, and the mucus secreted by the numerous glands of the membrane, their job is to preserve the surface of the membrane, and facilitate the flow of air. Serous, mucous and mixed glands abound in the trachea and in the middle bronchi The cartilaginous, elastic, and glandular elements diminish, while the muscular elements (smooth muscle fibers) begin to increase. The growth of elastic formations increases in the entire bronchial tree connected with the alveolar fibers, while the elastic formations increase in the terminal bronchioles and in the transcription. The muscular formations abound in the interlobular shoes of the bronchi, forming sphincters known as Reissessen muscles. Those muscle fibers, by contracting, narrow the diameter of the respiratory passages and have a role in pulmonary ventilation. On the outside of the right lung, a two-part slit appears, dividing it into three lobes, upper. Average. and lower, and 20% are observed in humans, a fourth lobe known as the individual lobe (lobeazygos) or the fourth lobe. The incision in the left lung begins posteriorly from the third rib or the third intercostal, heading lateral and downward, ending in the nipple line near the inner face of the sixth rib. The incision begins in the right lung at the back from the fourth intercostal or fifth rib, and ends in front at the anterior end of the fifth intercostal at the upper edge of the sixth rib at a distance of 10-5 cm from the midline. From it it goes upwards and forwards, ending at the anterior end of the sixth intercostals. Thus, the part of the lung above the shoulder blades is composed of the upper lobe, and whatever is below it belongs to the lower lobe.

comments (2)
محمود اسعد

2022-11-16 13:22:22

Suhaib Musa AlKurdi

2022-11-16 13:25:20

شكرآ اخي
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