Different Medical advantages of Chocolate, Red Wine, and Apples When Drunk in the Perfect Sums
B-type procyanidins, a group of polyphenols found in foods like apples, chocolate, and red wine, are best consumed in order to promote healthy metabolic and hemodynamic responses.
Information from the Shibaura Institute of Technology
Foods including cocoa, apples, grape seeds, and red wine are rich sources of the polyphenol class known as B-type procyanidins, which is composed of catechin oligomers.
The advantages of these micronutrients in lowering the risk of cardiovascular illnesses and strokes have been proven in several research. Additionally effective for regulating hypertension, dyslipidemia, and glucose intolerance are B-type procyanidins.
According to studies, their use has physiological effects on the central nervous system (CNS), namely an enhancement in cognitive functions.
Hormesis, a phenomenon in which a substance's greatest effects are reached at mid-range doses, decreasing progressively decreased at lower and higher doses, is the basis for these physiological alterations.
Most bioactive substances have a monotonic dose-response relationship, meaning that a higher dose causes a bigger reaction. But occasionally, a U-shaped dose-response curve is observed.
This U-shaped curve represents hormesis, an adaptive reaction in which the body develops tolerance to higher quantities of a normally damaging chemical in response to a low amount of that compound. This implies that low-level exposure to a damaging trigger can cause the activation of stress-resistant pathways, increasing the body's capacity for repair and regeneration.
Although various in vitro investigations have supported the hormetic effects of B-type procyanidins, these findings have not been confirmed in vivo.
Researchers from the Shibaura Institute of Technology (SIT), Japan, under the direction of Professor Naomi Osakabe from the Department of Bioscience and Engineering, examined the evidence from intervention trials supporting the hormetic effects of ingesting B-type procyanidins in order to fill this knowledge gap.
In vivo tests were also carried out by the team, which included Taiki Fushimi and Yasuyuki Fujii from the Graduate School of Engineering and Science (SIT), to learn more about potential links between B-type procyanidin hormetic responses and CNS neurotransmitter receptor activation.
On June 15, 2022, their article was made available online, and on September 7, 2022, Frontiers of Nutrition, number 9, published it.
The scientists discovered that rats' blood pressure and heart rates momentarily elevated after receiving an oral dosage of cocoa flavanol. But when the dose was increased or decreased, the hemodynamics remained constant. Similar outcomes were obtained after administering B-type procyanidin monomer and different oligomers.
These findings "are congruent with those of intervention studies following a single intake of food rich in B-type procyanidin, and corroborate the U-shaped dose-response theory, or hormesis, of polyphenols," according to Professor Osakabe.
The team gave test rats adrenaline blockers to see if the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) was involved in the hemodynamic changes brought on by B-type procyanidins.
This was successful in reducing the brief rise in heart rate brought on by the recommended amount of cocoa flavanol. A1 blockers, a different class of blocker, prevented the brief increase in blood pressure.
This demonstrated that the hemodynamic and metabolic alterations brought on by a single oral dosage of B-type procyanidin were brought on by the SNS, which regulates the action of adrenaline blockers.
The next step was to determine why the thermogenic and metabolic responses are caused by optimal doses rather than large concentrations. They gave test animals a high dose of yohimbine (a 2 blocker) and cocoa flavanol together and noticed a brief but noticeable rise in blood pressure. The usage of yohimbine and B-type procyanidin oligomer led to similar findings.
Since 2 blockers are linked to the down-regulation of the SNS, Professor Osakabe hypothesizes that the decreased metabolic and thermogenic outputs at a high dose of B-type procyanidins seen in our study may have resulted from induced 2 auto-receptor activation. Thus, a high dose of B-type procyanidins may cause SNS deactivation.
The gut-brain axis has a crucial role in regulating responses to hormetic stress, according to earlier research. Memory, cognition, and stress tolerance are all significantly influenced by the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which is activated by optimum stress.
This study demonstrates how a single oral dose of B-type procyanidin activates the HPA, indicating that this stimulation may operate as a stressor for mammals and activate the SNS.
Hormesis and the biochemical pathways that it activates provide defense against numerous degenerative and aging processes, boosting our general health and strengthening our resistance to stress in the future.
The health advantages of foods high in B-type procyanidins are undeniable, even though further research is required to determine their precise relationship to the central nervous system (CNS).